GLOSSARY
AND METHODOLOGICAL NOTES


CHAPTER 1 | FOREIGN TRADE

EXPORTS
Domestic exports: exports of national products.
All exports (i.e. Total exports): domestic exports plus re-exports from bond and other than from bond.
Exports are credited to the country of final destination or of ultimate consumption. Exports formerly recorded according to the date of shipment have, since November 1967, been recorded according to the date of completion of consignment.
Figures about exports include government and private exports on trade account. Sale of goods, whether foreign or national to all foreign trading companies are included. All data exclude exports under military accounts. Exports under diplomatic privileges have been excluded since 1966. Exports are valued at F.O.B, Free on Board (ship or other means of international transport), at port or place of dispatch in the exporting country (including export duties, internal taxes and similar charges to the extent that they remain charged on the goods and passed on to the importers).

FOREIGN TRADE
The major source of information in compiling foreign trade statistics is export declaration forms and import declaration forms filled-in by the respective exporters and checked by customs officials.
Starting from November 1988, when border trade was opened, exports and imports recorded at border posts were included in the total foreign trade data, in addition to trade registered in Customs declarations. From 1990 onwards, border trade assessment values are determined by Customs Department.

IMPORTS
All imports is the sum of goods released directly from Customs wharves for domestic consumption (direct imports for consumption), presented under import and goods passed to the bonded (imports into bond).
Imports are credited to the country of primary origin or production. Imports which had formerly been recorded according to the date of payment of duty have, since November 1967, been recorded as of the date of completion of consignment.
Figures about imports include government and private imports on trade account. All data exclude imports under military accounts. Imports under diplomatic privileges have been excluded since 1966. Imports are valued at C.I.F, Cost, Insurance and Freight, ship or other means of international transport, at port or place of arrival into the country (excluding customs duty and other import charges).

CHAPTER 2 | PRODUCTION

PETROLEUM COKE
Since 1995-96 data are expressed in Metric Tons.

CHAPTER 3 | PRICES

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX AND RATE OF INFLATION
Consumer Price Index measures the average change in the retail prices of goods and services purchased and consumed by the households. The weights are based on 2012 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO).
According to COICOP Classification, weights and composition are grouped into twelve major categories of goods and services in 2012 base. For computing, the respective CPI groups are selected on the basis of their importance and representativeness.The computation of 2012 base CPI is based on 274 commoditieswhich are commonly used by most of the households.

RETAIL PRICES OF SELECTED COMMODITIES
The Central Statistical Organization collects retail prices of about 274 items of selected commodities for computation of Monthly Consumer Price Index at Union, 15 States and Regions and 3 major cities of Yangon, Mandalay and Naypyitaw.
The commodities prices are collected from 82 townships from States and Regions in the entire country. The collected prices are sent to CSO Head Office every month.

SPOT PRICE OF GOLD
The spot price of gold obtained from gold dealer.

CHAPTER 4 | FINANCE

DOMESTIC INTEREST RATES
Domestic Interest Rates include central bank rate, interest on treasury bills and bonds, deposit rates and lending rates.

FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES
Starting from 2012-2013, managed the floating foreign exchange rate is used. Starting from 1st April 2013, the daily reference foreign exchange rates are obtained from Central Bank of Myanmar. The daily reference rate for the last day of the month is used for valuation.

MONEY SUPPLY
Money supply is the aggregates money within an economic system in a given period. Money supply is classified as M1, M2 and M3, according to the type and size of the account in which the instrument is kept.

Money supply (M1) or narrow money consists of currency outside depository corporations and transferable deposits.
  M1 = currency outside depository corporations + Transferable Deposits

Money supply (M2) or broad money covers M1 and other (or nontransferable) deposits which include savings certificates, saving deposits, time deposits and other types of deposits.
  M2 = M1 + Other (or nontransferable) Deposits

Net Foreign Assets (NFA) : Net foreign assets (NFA) are the net amount between claims on nonresidents and liabilities to nonresidents of depository corporations which covers central bank and banks.
   Net Foreign Assets (NFA) = Claims on Nonresidents – Liabilities to Nonresidents

Domestic Credit (DC) : Domestic Credit comprises net claims on central government and claims on other sectors.
  Domestic Credit (DC) = Net Claims on Central Government + Claims on Other Sectors

Net Claims on Central Government
: Net claims on Central Government shows the net basis for the Claims on Central Government less liabilities to Central Government.
  Net Claims on Central Government = Claims on Central Government – Liabilities to Central Government

Claims on Other Sectors : Claims on other sectors are disaggregated into the claims on (1) state and local government, (2) public nonfinancial corporations, (3) other financial corporations and (4) private sector.

Other Items Net (OIN) : Other Items Net (OIN) refers a residual category for other liabilities less other assets.Other liabilities include all liabilities not included in broad money and other assets include nonfinancial and miscellaneous assets.
  Other Items Net (OIN)             = Other Liabilities - Other Assets
  Broad Money Liabilities (BML) = NFA + DC – OIN

Currency in Circulation (CIC) : The central bank’s liability for currency in circulation is equal to the total amount of currency issued by the central bank less the central bank’s own holding of national currency.
Currency in Circulation (CIC) = Currency issued by Central Bank - Currency holdings (vault cash) of Central Bank

Monetary Base (M0)
: Monetary Base or Reserve Money or Base Money or high-powered money comprises central bank’s liabilities that support the expansion of broad money and credit.
Monetary Base(M0) = Currency in Circulation (CIC) + ODC’s deposit holdings at the central bank + deposit of money holding sectors at the central bank that are also included in broad money

Currency Outside Depository Corporations : The currency outside depository corporations is equal to the total amount of currency issued by the central bank less currency holdings of depository corporations (central bank and other depository corporations). It is also equal to the amount of currency in circulation less currency holdings (vault cash) of other depository corporations.


Transferable Deposits : Transferable deposits comprise all deposits that are exchangeable on demand at par, without penalty or restriction, and that are otherwise commonly used to directly make payments.

Other (or nontransferable) Deposits : Other (or nontransferable) deposits comprises all claims, other than transferable deposits, that are represented by evidence of deposits. It includes saving deposits, time deposits, saving certificates, and other types of deposits.
Other ( or nontransferable)Deposits = Saving Deposits + Time Deposits + Saving Certificates + Other types of Deposits

PEOPLE'S SAVINGS
People's savings are savings deposits, time deposits and certificates of Savings Division at the Myanma Economic Banks and private banks, which also accept savings deposits and time deposits. Savings deposits and time deposits are accepted at all Myanma Economic Banks savings branches as well as at all private banks to promote domestic saving under the new Savings Bank Law which was enacted on 11 June 1992.
Savings certificates are issued by the state-owned banks under the new Savings Bank Law 1992, and they are currently issued in varied denominations of Kyat 1,000, Kyat 10,000, Kyat 100,000, Kyat 500,000 and Kyat 1,000,000 which will mature after completion of twelve years from the date of issue. At the option of the owner, savings certificates may be redeemed at any time after twelve months from the date of issue with accrued interest for relevant period.

REVENUE FROM TAXES
Revenue from Taxes consists of commodities and services tax, commercial tax, state lottery, stamp duties and income taxes.

TREASURY BONDS
The Central Bank of Myanmar has issued two-year treasury bonds since 1st January 2010. Three-year treasury bonds and five-year treasury bonds are issued with effect from 1st December 1993 at the Central Bank of Myanmar with a view to giving an opportunity for the public and private enterprises to save and developing a capital market.

CHAPTER 5 | INVESTMENT

MYANMAR INVESTMENT LAW
The Myanmar Investment Law was enacted on 18th October 2016, integrating Foreign Investment Law (2012) and the Myanmar Citizens Investment Law (2013) to streamline investment producers open up more sectors to investors and promote regional development.

MYANMAR CITIZEN INVESTMENT
Myanmar Citizen Investment means a Myanmar citizen who invests within the Union. In this expression, the Myanmar Investors can set up their business in the form of Myanmar companies and branch offices, and other enterprises established and registered in accordance with the Myanmar Companies Act.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT
Foreign Investment means any direct investment made by a foreign investor within the Union. In this expression, the Foreign Investors can set up their business in the form of foreign companies, branch offices and other enterprises established and registered in accordance with the Myanmar Companies Act and enterprises formed in accordance with the laws of any other country.

CHAPTER 6 | TRANSPORTATION AND TRAVEL

AIRWAYS TRANSPORT
The data include all traffic for the public sector both revenue and non- revenue, performed by the Myanmar National Airlines on scheduled services, non-scheduled services, special and charter services.

INLAND WATER TRANSPORT
Data relate to all traffic of powered vessels of the government functioning on commercial lines.

PASSENGER CAR
Cars which can accommodate a maximum of 8 passengers are classified as passenger cars. Ambulance, fire fighter, hearse, water bowser, oil bowser, pole carrier, vehicles for drilling, dump truck, concrete mixer truck and tractor head and trailer are also included.

PASSENGER-MILE
One passenger-mile corresponds to the transport of one passenger over one mile.

RAILWAY TRANSPORT
Data include the operation on all railway lines in the country except railways serving plantation, forests, mines or industrial plants. Statistics relating to diesel locomotives do not include diesel rail cars.

SHIPPING
Data exclude vessels on government duty including military, pleasure craft and fishing vessels.
A ship entering or leaving Myanmar waters from or to a foreign port is counted only once, irrespective of the number of ports it enters.
Registered tonnage is the total volume of all enclosed space of vessel (gross tonnage) minus space not used for passenger or cargo.


TON-MILE
One ton-mile corresponds to the transport of one ton of freight over one mile.

TOURISM
A tourist is defined as a person travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for one purpose (United Nation World Tourism Organization’s direction).

CHAPTER 7 | LABOUR AND ENPLOYMENT

EMPLOYMENT THROUGH LABOUR EXCHANGE OFFICES
Employment through Labour Exchange Offices means job-seekers who are registered at 16. Labour Exchange Offices in Yangon and 62 Labour Exchange Offices in Other States and Regions.

OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT
Department of Labour is providing services (through overseas employment licensed agencies) for overseas employment in fast and easy way and signing MoUs and Bi-lateral agreements with labour receiving countries.

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